Master the ten commandments of logic and win more arguments. Or simply walk away from those that have no merit. Learning to spot the weaknesses in your normal reasoning pattern will make you a more rational and effective communicator.
Ten Ways to think better:
Learn how to spot and make valid arguments. We hope you enjoy this critical thinking guide.
1. AD HOMINEM
Attack the argument. Not a person’s character
The second lowest form of disagreement according to Paul Graham’s Hierarchy
2. STRAW MAN FALLACY
Don’t exaggerate or misinterpret a person’s argument.
Giving the impression of refuting an opponent’s argument, while actually refuting an argument that was not presented by that opponent.
3. HASTY GENERALISATIONS
Don’t use small numbers to represent all.
Make sure you have studied enough before you make conclusions.
4. BEGGING THE QUESTION
Don’t assume your entire argument is right because one of your premise is true.
You must prove your point before using it to support your argument.
5. POST HOC/FALSE CAUSE
Don’t assume that because something happened before that it was the cause.
Just because B followed A does not mean A caused B.
6. FALSE DICHOTOMY
Arguments can be resolved by more than two possibilities.
Not everything is ‘Black & White’.
7. AD IGNORANTUM
Don’t use a person’s ignorance of a claim to suggest that something is true or false.
Appeal to lack of contrary evidence.
8. BURDEN OF PROOF REVERSAL
Don’t lay the burden of proof onto those who are questioning you.
The reversed responsibility response.
9. NON SEQUITUR
Don’t assume or make connections that don’t exist.
A conclusion or reply that doesn’t follow logically from the previous statement.
10. BANDWAGON FALLACY/ AD POPULUM
Don’t assume something is true because it’s popular.
Concluding that a proposition must be true or false because many or most people believe it.